It should be noted that over the past 30 years, figures the average life expectancy has undergone "interesting" transformation. Filed by the State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation from 1970 to 1980, life expectancy for men in urban areas decreased by 1.2 years (from 63.6 to 62.4 years), and in rural areas - 2.7 years (from 62.0 to 59.3 years). In urban women during this period the reduction was only 0.2 years in rural - 0.5 years. Thus by 1980 the difference in life expectancy of men in urban and rural areas reached 3.1 years (women - 0.7 years). Calculations show that men have mostly been due to a significantly higher mortality in the villages of accidents, poisonings and injuries, diseases of the circulatory system. Just over 65 years, the situation of rural women and men were more prosperous than the city. It should be noted that the gap between Russia and in most developed countries, life expectancy has always existed, but now it has increased and is 14-16 years for men and 10.8 years for women. Especially unfavorable position with a mortality rate of men whose life expectancy in 2000 was 13.2 years less than women. This gap in performance remains the highest among the countries of the world, publishing mortality statistics. The low level of women's reproductive health to some extent hinders reduction of infant mortality, the rate of which in 2000 was 15.3 per 1,000 live births. Mortality of children under one year of age in Russia is two to four times higher than in developed countries. The annual number of deaths of children and adolescents under 15 years of age infants did not have lived to the age of one year, up about 60% (see Table. 12). Currently, the highest levels of infant mortality (number of deaths under one year per 1,000 live births) were recorded in the republics of Ingushetia - 33.0, Tuva - 30.0, Karachay-Cherkessia - 29.7. The most prosperous rates (below 11% o) - in Moscow, St. Petersburg, Leningrad and Samara regions, the Republic of Mordovia. Table 12 Infant mortality in the Russian Federation on the main causes of death (10 thousand live births) Causes 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 1999 2000 Total deaths from all causes 174.0 180.5 186.1 173.7 164.9 169.1 153.3 Including: from infectious and parasitic diseases 13.4 11.7 12.2 12.1 10.4 11.4 9.2 Respiratory diseases 24.7 26.6 24.6 22.0 20.5 21.0 16.5 From diseases of the digestive system 1.1 1.4 1.4 1.2 1.0 1.2 0.9 Congenital anomalies 37.0 38.6 40.6 41.1 40.5 38.7 35.5 From some of the causes of perinatal 80.1 80.5 85.1 75.3 69.9 71.0 67.7 Accidents, poisonings and injuries 7.1 8.5 9.6 9.4 9.9 11.2 9.7 Two-thirds of newborn deaths occur in conditions originating in the perinatal period (from 28 weeks of pregnancy, including childbirth and the first seven days of life), that is on diseases that are closely related to reproductive health of the mother (see Table. 12). Along with this significant and the proportion (about 25%), respiratory diseases, infectious and parasitic diseases, accidents, poisonings and injuries, that is, reasons, the death rate from which is largely due to the quality and timeliness of the provision of medical and preventive care for infants, the organization of anti-epidemic measures. The most pressing problem is still a high level of premature mortality rates, which are now about one-third higher than 10 years ago. The share of working age in the total number of deaths of almost 28%. Since the mortality of men in the four to six times higher than those of female deaths among those who died in the working age men make up more than 80%. It should be noted that the differences in mortality among men and women in Russian concentrated ages ranging from 20 to 60 years, whereas in children and the elderly (over 60 years) are relatively small ages. (In the European Union, the USA, Japan, the level of premature mortality of able-bodied men in the 2.5-4 times lower than in Russia.) The unfavorable situation in the health and life of the Russians mean a huge loss of life potential of the population. The losses affect all of its major components: the total years of working life and the cumulative lifetime in dorabochem and poslerabochem ages. According to estimates, the proportion of surviving to the age of 16 men and women is almost the same - 97% and 98%, respectively. However, indicators of survivorship to the end of the working period are quite different. When comparing the data on the percentage of surviving to 60 years of number entered in the working age, it turns out that over the past 20 years, the highest rates of labor saving potential were observed in the mid-80s - men 71.8%, women - 89.0 %. By 1994, the figure for men fell by 20 (!) Items for women - only a 6.7, which confirms the opinion of the experts: the main component of the decline in life expectancy is "excessive mortality" in the working-age population, especially in men. Distribution of the major causes of death in the Russian population is the same as in the developed countries (see Table. 13). The first place is occupied by the disease of the circulatory system, the second - neoplasms, followed by accidents, poisoning, injuries and respiratory diseases. Currently, however, due to the faster growth of mortality from accidents, poisonings and injuries, they moved into second place. The working age in the first place there are accidents, poisoning and injuries from which in 2000 lost 238.2 thousand people (of which 196.5 thousand men), representing 37.8% of all deaths (Table . 14). The exceptionally high mortality from external causes, and especially its significant growth in 90 years - is that contrast sharply with Russia, as the countries of Eastern Europe and Western countries. If we consider the mortality of the reasons that the excess of male component in the working age is greatest on accidents, poisoning and injuries - by 5.1 times, including by suicide - of 7.6, from infectious and parasitic diseases, especially tuberculosis, - 6.4, respiratory diseases - by 5.1 times. Table 13 Mortality in some countries for reasons of death (Number of deaths per 100 000 population) * Country Year Infectious and parasitic diseases Malignancies Diseases of the circulatory diseases of the respiratory system Digestive diseases Accidents , homicide, suicide and other external influences Russia 1999 25.1 194.1 776.1 63.9 40.7 203.1 Austria 1995 1.9 188.9 369.3 29.9 39.8 54.3 UK 1995 4.9 206.5 317.2 109.2 27.4 28.5 Germany 1995 5.5 196.7 343.8 44.0 39.2 41.2 Netherlands 1995 6.3 206.9 269.3 62.7 26.3 29.7 France 1994 8.8 194.3 182.8 39.6 33.3 64.5 Sweden 1995 5.3 161.3 295.9 44.8 21.5 40.3 Japan 1994 10.3 159.8 187.4 73.9 26.2 43.3 Argentina 1993 33.7 176.6 437.6 67.3 40.9 57.7 Mexico 1995 36.4 122.0 295.3 106.9 93.5 81.8 USA 1994 11.4 195.0 307.2 67.9 27.5 55.5 Australia 1994 5.6 189.8 287.9 52.7 21.2 39.4 * The social situation and living standards of the population of Russia. 2000. Moscow, 2001. Table 14 Mortality rates of working age by main causes of death in Russia in 2000 (Number of deaths per 100 000 persons of working age) All indicators of population Men Women Total deaths from all causes 730.9 1,144.0 298.0 Including: From diseases of the circulatory system 206.7 331.0 78.0 Accidents, poisonings and injuries Among them: from accidental alcohol poisoning from all types of traffic injury from suicide from homicide 276.3 34.3 33.2 50.2 38.3 456.5 55.1 52.4 87.6 60.1 89.8 12.7 13.1 11.6 15.8 from neoplasms 88.3 113.2 62.6 respiratory diseases 35.7 59.0 11.5 diseases of the digestive 32.1 47.7 15.9 of certain infectious and parasitic diseases 31.5 53.8 8.4 According to calculations, the average age of death from accidents, poisonings and injuries is only 44.6 years, and from diseases of the circulatory system - 75.5 years. Simply put, many people do not have time to live up to the probability of dying from diseases of the circulatory system, as before, and die from other causes. Assuming that everything in Russia would die of cardiovascular disease, ie After 60 years, the average life expectancy of the population will increase substantially, and the loss of labor capacity will be greatly reduced. One consequence of the rise of the crisis in the society is the large number of murders and suicides in particular, that since 1992, are the most common accidents, poisonings and injuries. Suicides concentrated in itself the result of numerous factors, and their levels can be attributed to one of the indicators of social well-being of the population. Mortality from suicide than the average European level of Russian men is 2.5 times, women - 1.5 times. Mortality from road accidents Russia has overtaken European countries more than doubled. Second place in the structure of the working population mortality were diseases of the circulatory system - 29% of all deaths. Worried by the fact that everywhere a rejuvenation of the average age of death from these diseases. The men of working age, he has less than 50 years. The death rate from diseases of the circulatory system of able-bodied Russians 4.5 times higher than the rate in the European Union. Increasing numbers of deaths from unnatural causes and cardiovascular disease are closely linked to the prevalence of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Per capita alcohol consumption in Russia in the 90s. almost twice the level set by the World Health Organization as dangerous. Continues to be a highly relevant issue of smoking. Two-thirds of men and one third of women suffer from this bad habit, adversely affecting the health. 52% of all cancers in both men and women associated with smoking, including a passive. According to experts, the main causes of increased mortality in Russia in the 90s. are deteriorating the quality of life of the majority of the population that is associated with long-term socio-economic crisis, poor and inadequate nutrition, reducing the availability of medical and pharmaceutical care, uncertainty about their future and the future of children, growing criminalization of society. It should be noted that the increase in mortality, mainly concentrated in the age groups 20 to 50 years was noted in the early years of reform and a number of Eastern European countries, which, as well as Russia, have experienced at the turn of the 90s. shock painful economic reforms. Increase in mortality due to cardiovascular diseases, stomach ulcers, and cirrhosis of the liver, as well as "external" reasons, driven primarily by three closely related to the transition period, factors: the impoverishment of the rage, the collapse of the system of preventive medicine, sanitation and hygiene, psychological stress. The main economic consequence of premature mortality - is to reduce the number of labor potential and the resulting shortfall in the gross domestic product. The so-called demographic investments for maintenance, education and training of children and young people do not pay off their labor contribution as a result of early retirement from life. Aging of the workforce, the growth of disability and morbidity in the population of working age, in addition to loss of employment, has the effect of reducing mobility, increased dependency burden the elderly and the elderly, leading to higher costs for social security and maintenance, reduced employment opportunities to increase earnings and investment in economic progress .